Kaduk, K., Petrella, A., Müller, S.J., Koenig, J., Kroemer, N.B. (2023) Non-invasive vagus nerve stimulation decreases vagally mediated heart rate variability. bioRxiv, doi: 10.1101/2023.05.30.542695

Koepp, V.*, Klaus, J.*, Ferstl, M., Müller, F.K., Kühnel, A., Kroemer, N.B. (2021) Non-invasive vagus nerve stimulation normalizes food liking and improves liking ratings in depression. PsyArXiv, doi: 10.31234/

Kühnel, A., Czisch, M., Sämann, P., Binder, E.B., Kroemer, N.B. (2020) Threat-induced hippocampal connectivity fingerprints do not generalize to psychosocial stress. bioRxiv


Kroemer, N.B. (2023) Metabolic tuning during the menstrual cycle. Nat Metab, 5: 1449-1451

Kühnel, A., Hagenberg, J., Knauer-Arloth, J., Ködel, M., Czisch, M., Sämann, P.G., BeCOME working group, Binder, E.B., Kroemer, N.B. (2023) Stress-induced brain responses are associated with BMI in women. Commun Biol, 6: 1031

Neuser, M.P.*, Kühnel, A.*, Kräutlein, F., Teckentrup, V., Svaldi, J., Kroemer, N.B. (2023) Reliability of gamified reinforcement learning in densely sampled longitudinal assessments. PLoS Digit Health, 2: e0000330

Sailer, U., Riva, F., Lieberz, J., Campbell-Meiklejohn, D., Scheele, D., Pfabigan, D.M. (2023) Hungry for compliments? Ghrelin is not associated with neural responses to social rewards or their pleasantness. Front Psychiatry, 14

Lewis, C.A., Grahlow, M., Kühnel, A., Derntl, B., Kroemer, N.B. (2023) Women compared with men work harder for small rewards. Sci Rep, 13

Schulz, C.*, Vezzani, C.*, Kroemer, N.B. (2023) How gut hormones shape reward: a systematic review of the role of ghrelin and GLP-1 in human fMRI. Physiol Behav, 263: 114111, preprint on bioRxiv

Goltermann, J., Winter, N., Meinert, S., Sindermann, L., Lemke, H., Leehr, E.J., Grotegerd, D., Winter, A., Thiel, K., Waltemate, L., Breuer, F., Repple, J., Gruber, M., Richter, M., Teckentrup, V., Kroemer NB, […], Opel N, Hahn T (2023). Resting-state functional connectivity patterns associated with childhood maltreatment in a large bicentric cohort of adults with and without major depression. Psychol Med, 53: 4720-4731


Kroemer, N.B., Opel, N., Teckentrup, V., Li, M., Grotegerd, D., … Dannlowski, U., Walter, M. (2022) Functional connectivity of the reward circuit predicts changes in appetite in depression. JAMA Psychiatry, 79: 993-1003, preprint on PsyArXiv

Müller, S.J., Teckentrup, V., Rebollo, I., Hallschmid, M., Kroemer, N.B. (2022) Vagus nerve stimulation increases stomach-brain coupling via a vagal afferent pathway. Brain Stim, 15: 1279-1289, preprint on bioRxiv

Kühnel, A., Czisch, M., Sämann, P.G., BECOME Study Team, Binder, E.B., Kroemer, N.B. (2022) Spatio-temporal dynamics of stress-induced network reconfigurations reflect negative affectivity. Biol Psychiatry, 92: 158-169, preprint on bioRxiv

Kroemer, N.B., Kaufmann, T. (2022) Metabolic traces in the human brain: Genetic risk for diabetes and altered structural connectivity in depression. Biol Psychiatry Cogn Neurosci Neuroimaging, 7: 246-248

Müller, F.K., Teckentrup, V., Kühnel, A., Ferstl, M., Kroemer, N.B. (2022) Acute vagus nerve stimulation does not affect liking or wanting ratings of food in healthy participants. Appetite, 169: 105813, preprint on bioRxiv

Lewis, C.A., Kimmig, A.C., Kroemer, N.B., Pooseh, S., Smolka, M.N., Sacher, J., Derntl, B. (2022) No differences in value-based decision-making due to use of oral contraceptives. Front Endocrinol, 13: 817825

Ferstl, M., Teckentrup, V., Lin, W.M., Kräutlein, F., Kühnel, A., Klaus, J., Walter, M., Kroemer, N.B. (2022) Non-invasive vagus nerve stimulation boosts mood recovery after effort exertion. Psychol Med 52: 3029-3039, preprint on bioRxiv


Teckentrup, V., Krylova, M., Jamalabadi, H., Neubert, S., Neuser, M.P., Hartig, R., Fallgatter, A.J., Walter, M., Kroemer N.B. (2021) Brain signaling dynamics after vagus nerve stimulation [Registered Report]. NeuroImage, 245: 118679

Wolf, V., Kühnel, A., Teckentrup, V., Koenig, J., Kroemer, N.B. (2021) Does transcutaneous auricular vagus nerve stimulation affect vagally-mediated heart rate variability? A living and interactive Bayesian meta-analysis. Psychophysiology, 58: e13933, preprint on bioRxiv

van den Hoek Ostende, M.M., Neuser, M.P., Teckentrup, V., Svaldi, J., Kroemer, N.B. (2021) Can’t decide how much to EAT? Variability in effort for reward is associated with cognitive control. Appetite, 159: 105067, preprint on bioRxiv.

Krylova, M., Alizadeh, S., Izyurov, I., Teckentrup, V., Chang, C., van der Meer, J.N., Erb, M., Kroemer, N.B., Koenig, T., Walter, M., Jamalabadi, H. (2021) Evidence for modulation of EEG microstate sequence by vigilance level. NeuroImage, 224: 117393, preprint on bioRxiv.


Neuser, M.P., Teckentrup, V., Kühnel, A., Hallschmid, M., Walter, M., Kroemer, N.B. (2020) Vagus nerve stimulation increases the drive to work for rewards. Nat Commun, 11: 3555. preprint on bioRxiv

Kühnel, A., Kroemer, N.B., Elbau, I., Czisch, M., Walter, M., Sämann, P., Binder, E.B. (2020) Stress reactivity is modulated by preceding cortisol responses. Hum Brain Mapp, 41: 4010-4023.

Neuser, M.P., Kühnel, A., Svaldi, J., Kroemer, N.B. (2020) Beyond the average: The role of variable reward sensitivity in eating disorders. Physiol Behav, 223: 112971.

Martens, L.*, Kroemer, N.B.*, Teckentrup, V., Colic, L., Palomero-Gallagher, N., Li, M., Walter, M. (2020) Localized prediction of glutamate from whole-brain functional connectivity of the pregenual anterior cingulate cortex. J Neurosci, 40: 9028-9042, preprint on bioRxiv.

Kühnel, A., Teckentrup, V., Neuser, M.P., Huys, Q.J.M., Burrasch, C., Walter, M., Kroemer, N.B. (2020) Stimulation of the vagus nerve reduces learning in a go/no-go reinforcement learning task. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol, 35: 17-29, preprint on bioRxiv.

Teckentrup, V., Neubert, S., Santiago, J.C.P., Hallschmid, M., Walter, M., Kroemer, N.B. (2020) Non-invasive stimulation of vagal afferents reduces gastric frequency. Brain Stimul, 13:470-473. doi: 10.1016/j.brs.2019.12.018, preprint on bioRxiv

Farmer, A., Strzelczyk, A., Finisguerra, A., Gourine, A.V., Gharabaghi, A., Hasan, A., …, Kroemer, N.B., …, Teckentrup, V., …, Koenig, J. (2020) International consensus based review and recommendations for minimum reporting standards in research on transcutaneous vagus nerve stimulation (Version 2020). Front Hum Neurosci, 14.

Großkopf, C., Kroemer, N.B., Pooseh, S., Böhme, F., Smolka, M.N. (2020) Temporal discounting and smoking cessation: Choice consistency predicts nicotine abstinence in treatment-seeking smokers. Psychopharmacology, 238: 399–410.

Bäuchl, C., Kroemer, N.B., Pooseh, S., Petzold, J., Bitzer, S., Thurm, F., Li, S.C., Smolka M.N. (2020) Reward modulates the association between sensory noise and brain activity during perceptual decision-making. Neuropsychologia, 149: 107675.


Teckentrup, V., van der Meer, J.N., Borchardt, V., Fan, Y., Neuser, M.P., Tempelmann, C., Herrmann, L., Walter, M., Kroemer, N.B. (2019) The anterior insula channels prefrontal expectancy signals during affective processing. NeuroImage, 200: 414-424. preprint on bioRxiv.

Fröhner, J.H., Teckentrup, V., Smolka, M.N., Kroemer, N.B. (2019) Addressing the reliability fallacy in fMRI: Similar group effects may arise from unreliable individual effects. NeuroImage, 195: 174-189. preprint on bioRxiv.

Popescu, T., Neuser, M.P., Neuwirth, M., Bravo, F., Mende, W., Boneh, O., Moss, F.C., Rohrmeier, M. (2019) The pleasantness of sensory dissonance is mediated by musical style and expertise. Sci Rep, 9:1070.

Kroemer, N.B., Lee, Y., Pooseh, S., Eppinger, B., Goschke, T., Smolka, M.N. (2019) L-DOPA reduces model-free control of behavior by attenuating the transfer of value to action. NeuroImage, 186: 113-125. preprint on bioRxiv.


Kroemer, N.B., Veldhuizen, M.G., Delvy, R., Batel, B.P., O’Malley, S.S., Small, D.M. (2018) Sweet taste potentiates the reinforcing effects of e-cigarettes, Eur Neuropsychopharmacol, 28: 1089-1102.

Kuitunen-Paul, S., Scheffel, C., Böhme, F., Kroemer, N.B., Kuipers, L.Y., Kuitunen, P.T., Smolka, M.N., Bühringer, G. (2018) Interpersonal and intrapersonal relapse predictors in a structured group intervention for smoking cessation. J Subst Use, 24: 29-35.

Lee, Y., Kroemer, N.B., Oehme, L., Beuthien-Baumann, B., Goschke, T., Smolka, M. N. (2018) Lower dopamine tone in the striatum is associated with higher body mass index, Eur Neuropsychopharmacol, 28:719–731.

Neukam, P.T., Kroemer, N.B., Deza Araujo, Y. I., Hellrung, L., Pooseh, S., Witt, S.H., Schwarzenbolz, U., Rietschel, M., Henle, T., Smolka, M.N. (2018) Risk-seeking for losses is associated with 5-HTTLPR, but not with transient changes in 5-HT levels, Psychopharmacology 235: 2151-2165.

Kroemer, N.B. (2018) Exaggerated control demands over reward-related behavior in anorexia nervosa. Biol Psychiatry, 83:194-196.

Nebe, S., Kroemer, N.B., Schad, D.J., Bernhardt, N., Sebold, M., Muller, D.K., Scholl, L., Kuitunen-Paul, S., Heinz, A., Rapp, M.A., Huys, Q.J., Smolka, M.N. (2018) No association of goal-directed and habitual control with alcohol consumption in young adults. Addict Biol, 23:379-393.


Götting, F.N., Borchardt, V., Demenescu, L.R., Teckentrup, V., Dinica, K., Lord, A.R., Rohe, T., Hausdorfer, D.I., Li, M., Metzger, C.D., Walter, M. (2017) Higher interference susceptibility in reaction time task is accompanied by weakened functional dissociation between salience and default mode network. Neurosci Lett, 649:34-40.

Veldhuizen, M.G., Babbs, R.K., Patel, B., Fobbs, W., Kroemer, N.B., Garcia, E., Yeomans, M.R., Small, D.M. (2017) Integration of sweet taste and metabolism determines carbohydrate reward. Curr Biol, 27:2476-2485.


Gao, X., Sun, X., Veldhuizen, M.G., Nakamura, Y., Kroemer, N.B., Small, D.M. (2016) Micturition drive is associated with decreased brain response to palatable milkshake in the human anterior insular cortex. Chemosens Percept, 9:174-181.

Kroemer, N.B., Burrasch, C., Hellrung, L. (2016) To work or not to work: Neural representation of cost and benefit of instrumental action. Progress in Brain Research, 229:125-157.

Kroemer, N.B., Small, D.M. (2016) Fuel not fun: Reinterpreting attenuated brain responses to reward in obesity. Physiol Behav, 162:37-45.

Kroemer, N.B., Sun, X., Veldhuizen, M.G., Babbs, A.E., De Araujo, I.E., Small, D.M. (2016) Weighing the evidence: Variance in brain responses to milkshake receipt is predictive of eating behavior. NeuroImage, 128:273-283.

Sebold, M., Schad, D.J., Nebe, S., Garbusow, M., Junger, E., Kroemer, N.B., Kathmann, N., Zimmermann, U.S., Smolka, M.N., Rapp, M.A., Heinz, A., Huys, Q.J. (2016) Don’t think, just feel the music: Individuals with strong Pavlovian-to-instrumental transfer effects rely less on model-based reinforcement learning. J Cogn Neurosci, 8:985-995.


Ehrlich, S., Geisler, D., Ritschel, F., King, J.A., Seidel, M., Boehm, I., Breier, M., Clas, S., Weiss, J., Marxen, M., Smolka, M.N., Roessner, V., Kroemer, N.B. (2015) Elevated cognitive control over reward processing in recovered female patients with anorexia nervosa. J Psychiatry Neurosci, 40:307-15.

Jurk, S., Kuitunen-Paul, S., Kroemer, N.B., Artiges, E., Banaschewski, T., Bokde, A.L., Buchel, C., Conrod, P., Fauth-Buhler, M., Flor, H., Frouin, V., Gallinat, J., Garavan, H., Heinz, A., Mann, K.F., Nees, F., Paus, T., Pausova, Z., Poustka, L., Rietschel, M., Schumann, G., Struve, M., Smolka, M.N., IMAGEN consortium (2015) Personality and substance use: psychometric evaluation and validation of the Substance Use Risk Profile Scale (SURPS) in English, Irish, French, and German adolescents. Alcohol Clin Exp Res, 39:2234-48.

Knoll, M., Meyer, B., Kroemer, N.B., Schröder-Abé, M. (2015) It takes two to be yourself: An integrated model of authenticity, its measurement and its relationship to work-related variables. J Individ Differ, 36:38-53.

Kroemer, N.B., Wuttig, F., Bidlingmaier, M., Zimmermann, U.S., Smolka, M.N. (2015) Nicotine enhances modulation of food-cue reactivity by leptin and ghrelin in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex. Addict Biol, 20:832-44.

Sun, X., Kroemer, N.B., Veldhuizen, M.G., Babbs, A.E., de Araujo, I.E., Gitelman, D.R., Sherwin, R.S., Sinha, R., Small, D.M. (2015) Basolateral amygdala response to food cues in the absence of hunger is associated with weight gain susceptibility. J Neurosci, 35:7964-76.


Hahn, T., Notebaert, K., Anderl, C., Teckentrup, V., Kaßecker, A., Windmann, S. (2014) How to trust a perfect stranger: predicting initial trust behavior from resting-state brain-electrical connectivity. Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci, 10:809-813.

Kobiella, A., Ripke, S., Kroemer, N.B., Vollmert, C., Vollstadt-Klein, S., Ulshofer, D.E., Smolka, M.N. (2014) Acute and chronic nicotine effects on behaviour and brain activation during intertemporal decision making. Addict Biol, 19:918-30.

Kroemer, N.B., Guevara, A., Ciocanea Teodorescu, I., Wuttig, F., Kobiella, A., Smolka, M.N. (2014) Balancing reward and work: anticipatory brain activation in NAcc and VTA predict effort differentially. Neuroimage, 102 Pt 2:510-9.

Pilhatsch, M., Scheuing, H., Kroemer, N.B., Kobiella, A., Bidlingmaier, M., Farger, G., Smolka, M.N., Zimmermann, U.S. (2014) Nicotine administration in healthy non-smokers reduces appetite but does not alter plasma ghrelin. Hum Psychopharmacol, 29:384-7.

Pilhatsch, M., Vetter, N.C., Hubner, T., Ripke, S., Muller, K.U., Marxen, M., Rodehacke, S., Mennigen, E., Schmidt, D., Kroemer, N.B., Smolka, M.N. (2014) Amygdala-function perturbations in healthy mid-adolescents with familial liability for depression. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry, 53:559-68 e6.


Kroemer, N.B., Guevara, A., Vollstadt-Klein, S., Smolka, M.N. (2013) Nicotine alters food-cue reactivity via networks extending from the hypothalamus. Neuropsychopharmacology, 38:2307-14.

Kroemer, N.B., Krebs, L., Kobiella, A., Grimm, O., Pilhatsch, M., Bidlingmaier, M., Zimmermann, U.S., Smolka, M.N. (2013) Fasting levels of ghrelin covary with the brain response to food pictures. Addict Biol, 18:855-62.

Kroemer, N.B., Krebs, L., Kobiella, A., Grimm, O., Vollstadt-Klein, S., Wolfensteller, U., Kling, R., Bidlingmaier, M., Zimmermann, U.S., Smolka, M.N. (2013) (Still) longing for food: insulin reactivity modulates response to food pictures. Hum Brain Mapp, 34:2367-80.

Pilhatsch, M., Kroemer, N.B., Schneider, C., Ebersbach, G., Jost, W.H., Fuchs, G., Odin, P., Reifschneider, G., Bauer, M., Reichmann, H., Storch, A. (2013) Reduced body mass index in Parkinson’s disease: contribution of comorbid depression. J Nerv Ment Dis, 201:76-9.


Grimm, O., Jacob, M.J., Kroemer, N.B., Krebs, L., Vollstadt-Klein, S., Kobiella, A., Wolfensteller, U., Smolka, M.N. (2012) The personality trait self-directedness predicts the amygdala’s reaction to appetizing cues in fMRI. Appetite, 58:1023-9.